The EU negotiates and concludes international agreements both with third countries and with international organisations such as the WTO or the United Nations. In the case of agreements covering areas of shared competence with the EU Member States, the representatives of the governments of the Member States must also give their negotiating mandate. These include most foreign policy agreements and comprehensive trade agreements. As soon as we both feel good, we sign them and everyone will have a copy. This becomes my main tool to manage our business relationship. Do you notice the difference between an agreement like this and a list of work obligations? This is a profound and much more practical difference when it comes to promoting the right kind of work in the right way. The EU alone is competent to conclude international agreements in certain areas, for example.B. where the agreement would undermine common EU rules or where it is necessary to help the EU exercise its internal responsibilities. In areas where the EU has adopted specific common rules, for example. B in the field of customs, Member States can no longer sign agreements with third countries concerning these rules. In these cases too, the EU has exclusive competence and acts on behalf of all Member States. Then I say to the person, “If there is a time when I don`t respect the end of our agreement, you can create a copy of that agreement, circle the point you want to discuss, and give it to me and ask me, `I want to talk about it.`” I will do the same thing.

The EU can also sign international agreements in areas where competence is shared with Member States, for example. B in the field of foreign affairs. Research for this work was supported by the Kanda University of International Studies and the National Technical Institute for the Deaf under an agreement with the U.S. Department of Education. I would like to thank Harumi Kimura, without whose help this document would not be possible. Interviews with Itziar Laka, Yutaka Osugi, Takashi Torigoe, Terry Langendoen and S.-Y. Kuroda was also beneficial, as were the comments of two anonymous critics. All mistakes are mine.

I pretty much follow the usual practice of sign language notation. The signs are capitalized in English. Characters that need more than one English word in their gloss have hyphens between English words. Low numbers or letters refer to the Loci used for the chord: 1 and 2 refer to the first person, while points a, b, etc. Clues refer to the real or arbitrary loci of the third person. These results have two main consequences: (a) The assumption that CLs are conformity morphemes that do not absorb cases becomes viable. . . .