The protocol defines three “flexibility mechanisms” that can be used by Schedule I parties to meet their emission limitation obligations. [41]402 Flexibility mechanisms are the International Emissions Trading System (EIT), the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint Implementation (MOC). The ICA allows contracting parties to “negotiate” their emissions (units of allocated quantities, AAUs or short “quotas”). [42] U.S. Department of Energy Information (EIA) staff reviewed six U.S. CO2 emission forecasts through 2012, ranging from a baseline or business as usual ceiling to recorded reduction levels. Year 2012 U.S. CO2 emissions range from about 1.25 × 109 to 1.87 × 109 million. This has focused particularly on balancing low emissions with developing countries` high vulnerability to climate change relative to high emissions in industrialized countries. Another criticism of the Kyoto Protocol and other international conventions is the right of indigenous peoples to participate. According to the statement of the First International Forum of Indigenous Peoples on Climate Change, “despite the recognition of our role in preventing global warming, when it is time to sign international conventions such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, our right to participate again in national and international discussions that directly affect peoples and territories Refused. [122] In addition, it later stated in the statement that scientists and researchers are also involved in discussions on the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), but not directly. Only delegates from the country can participate in the official deliberations of the UNFCCC.

But researchers can participate in related events, observe scientific developments and discuss with delegates. Cooperation between researchers, research organizations and independent non-governmental organizations (RINGO) coordinates these research activities. RINGO have played an important role in the research of science behind the UNFCCC`s positions and have influenced the development of programs such as REDD and the Adaptation Fund. 1992: The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development is held in Rio de Janeiro. It is the result, among other things, of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Framework CONVENTION on Climate Change (if someone had proposed in 1958 that our own Advanced Defence Research Agency (DARPA), which oversees the development of advanced technologies for use by the U.S. military, would rule the world in the creation of the Internet – a system that “could connect any person and every thing with any other person and every thing on the planet immediately and without no cost” – they could make fun of the scene from one point to the other. Or worse. Almost all scientists who study the atmosphere now believe that global warming is primarily the result of human action.