Lend-Lease was hailed by the Soviet Union and President Roosevelt placed the highest priority in maintaining the Soviet Union in the war against Germany. Nevertheless, the programme did not prevent friction between the Soviet Union and other members of the anti-Hitler alliance. The Soviet Union was furious at the apparently long delay of the Allies in opening a “second front” of the Allied offensive against Germany. As the war in the east turned in favour of the Soviet Union, and despite the successful Allied landings in Normandy in 1944, previous tensions over irreconcilable differences over post-war objectives within the anti-axis coalition intensified. Lend-Lease helped the Soviet Union drive the Germans out of its territory and Eastern Europe, speeding up the end of the war. With the takeover of Stalin`s Eastern Europe, the war alliance ended and the Cold War began. A month later, the proposed European Treaty was rejected not only by EZ supporters, but also by Western opponents of the European Defence Community (such as French Gaullist leader Gaston Palewski), who considered it “unacceptable in its current form” because it excluded the United States from participating in the collective security system in Europe. [39] The Soviets then decided to submit a new proposal to the governments of the United States, the United Kingdom and France to accept the Participation of the United States in the proposed General European Agreement. [39] As another argument against the Soviet proposal was, the fact that it was perceived by Western powers as “against the North Atlantic Pact and its liquidation”[39][40], the Soviets decided to declare their “willingness” to discuss, with other interested parties, the issue of the USSR`s participation in the North Atlantic Bloc, stating that “the integration of the United States into the General European Agreement should not be subordinated only to the three Western powers of the USSR to the North Atlantic Pact.” [39] The Soviet Communist Party developed from the Bolshevik wing of the Russian Social Democratic Workers` Party, founded in 1903 by Vladimir Lenin. Lenin believed that a well-disciplined and hierarchical party was necessary to guide the working class in the fall of capitalism in Russia and the world. In November 1917, the Bolsheviks took power in St.